Research on Antimicrobial Copper
An overview of the topics presented on the RESEARCH drop-down pages is given below. The pages provide detailed information on specific topics or lists important journal articles, separated by subject area. The information is intended to guide to anyone interested in delving more deeply into the science underlying antimicrobial copper. They not meant to be comprehensive nor are they intended to replace the need to read the original published journal articles.
Clinical Trial - This page describes in the three-hospital clinical trial reported in Salgado et al. (2013) in greater detail. The full article is linked below.
C. D. Salgado, K. A. Sepkowitz, J. F. John, J. R. Cantey, H. H. Attaway, K. D. Freeman, P. A. Sharpe, H. T. Michels, M. G. Schmidt, 2013. Copper Surfaces Reduce the Rate of Healthcare-Acquired Infections in the Intensive Care Unit. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 34: 479-486. Special Topic Issue: The Role of the Environment in Infection Prevention
Laboratory Research - This page provides brief reviews of key research journal articles that demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of copper surfaces against bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
Reference List Part 1 - This page lists the full titles and links to journal articles in the areas of Clinical Trials and Field Studies, Guidelines, Economics
Reference List Part 2 - This page lists the full titles and links to journal articles in the areas of Laboratory Research, Reviews, and Mechanism of Killing Bacteria
REVIEWS - Listed below are three particularly valuable articles that review the antimicrobial copper story.
Harold T. Michels, C. William Keevil, Cassandra D. Salgado and Michael G. Schmidt, From Laboratory Research to a Clinical Trial: Copper Alloys Surfaces Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital-Acquired Infections, Health Environment Research & Design Journal, Vol. 9(1), 64-79, 2015 (doi: 10.1177/1937586715592650.)
Harold T. Michels and Corinne A. Michels, Copper alloys – The new ‘old’ weapon in the fight against infectious disease, Current Research Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 10, 23-45, 2016
Harold T. Michels and Corinne A. Michels, Potential of copper alloys to kill bacteria and reduce hospital infection rates, Internal Medicine Review, Vol. 3,No. 3 Issue 3, March 2017