Research on Antimicrobial Copper

An overview of the topics presented on the RESEARCH drop-down pages is given below.  The pages provide detailed information on specific topics or lists important journal articles, separated by subject area.  The information is intended to guide to anyone interested in delving more deeply into the science underlying antimicrobial copper.  They not meant to be comprehensive nor are they intended to replace the need to read the original published journal articles.

  • Clinical Trial - This page describes in the three-hospital clinical trial reported in Salgado et al. (2013) in greater detail.  The full article is linked below.

C. D. Salgado, K. A. Sepkowitz, J. F. John, J. R. Cantey, H. H. Attaway, K. D. Freeman, P. A. Sharpe, H. T. Michels, M. G. Schmidt, 2013.  Copper Surfaces Reduce the Rate of Healthcare-Acquired Infections in the Intensive Care Unit. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 34: 479-486. Special Topic Issue: The Role of the Environment in Infection Prevention 

  • Laboratory Research - This page provides brief reviews of key research journal articles that demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of copper surfaces against bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

  • Reference List Part 1 - This page lists the full titles and links to journal articles in the areas of Clinical Trials and Field Studies, Guidelines, Economics

  • Reference List Part 2 - This page lists the full titles and links to journal articles in the areas of Laboratory Research, Reviews, and Mechanism of Killing Bacteria

REVIEWS - Listed below are three particularly valuable articles that review the antimicrobial copper story.

Harold T. Michels, C. William Keevil, Cassandra D. Salgado and Michael G. Schmidt, From Laboratory Research to a Clinical Trial: Copper Alloys Surfaces Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital-Acquired Infections, Health Environment Research & Design Journal, Vol. 9(1), 64-79, 2015 (doi: 10.1177/1937586715592650.)

Harold T. Michels and Corinne A. Michels, Copper alloys – The new ‘old’ weapon in the fight against infectious disease, Current Research Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 10, 23-45, 2016

Harold T. Michels and Corinne A. Michels, Potential of copper alloys to kill bacteria and reduce hospital infection rates, Internal Medicine Review, Vol. 3,No. 3 Issue 3, March 2017

The Antimicrobial Copper Action Network - Location is in the United States, and serving the Globe:

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*EPA required statement:  Laboratory testing shows that, when cleaned regularly, antimicrobial copper surfaces kill greater than 99.9% of the following bacteria within 2 hours of exposure: MRSA, VRE, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli O157:H7. Antimicrobial copper surfaces are a supplement to and not a substitute for standard infection control practices and have been shown to reduce microbial contamination, but do not necessarily prevent cross contamination or infections; users must continue to follow all current infection control practices.


All EPA related statements on this website apply to the U.S. market and audiences only.​ 

For locations outside of the U.S., local regulatory guidelines should be consulted and followed.