References - Part 1 of 2, including links to abstracts 

and related information and selected published  papers

The References are presented on two pages on the dropdown menu, Part 1 and Part 2, and are grouped into the following topics.

Part 1:  References listed on this page fall into the following areas.

  • Clinical Trials and Field Trials

  • Guidelines 

  • Economics

Part 2:  References listed on this page fall into the following areas.

  • Laboratory Research

  • Mechanism of Killing Bacteria

  • Reviews 

Some of the references appear in more than one group because of their content. 

To view the published paper or abstract of interest: 

  • Click on the links shown underlined in red to view the selected abstract or a paper. 

 

Note: in many cases, you will get only get the abstract and other related information but not the full text of the paper.  A fee may be required in some cases to obtain the full paper.  You can also try putting the entire title of the article in your search engine.

 

If the link is highlighted in green, the full paper should be provided at no cost.  When the document opens, you may have to look for internal links saying Free Access, Open Access, Full Text, or a DOI designation.

Some of the papers may have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier).  You will have to cut and paste the doi link, shown in blue, into a search engine to view the an abstract and other related information.  In a few cases, all you have to do is click on the link.

 

Please note: If any link does not open readily, try entering the paper  title into a search engine.

Disclaimers

The following scientific studies include conclusions about copper alloys that do not reflect U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) antimicrobial public health product registration approvals. These conclusions are the opinions of the researchers and authors and are based on independent scientific studies that have not been reviewed or approved by EPA.

Furthermore, any references that state or imply effectiveness in controlling disease, preventing infection, or the transmission of bacteria (i.e. cross-contamination) that can cause disease in humans have not been approved by either EPA or FDA (U.S. Food & Drug Administration). It is imperative that all marketing and promotion of antimicrobial copper surfaces in the U.S. adhere to EPA guidelines. For locations outside of the U.S., local regulatory guidelines should be consulted and followed.

 

References, with links

  • Clinical Trials and Field Trials

Copper for the Prevention of Outbreaks of Health Care–Associated Infections in a Long-term Care Facility for Older Adults. S Zerbib, L Vallet, A Muggeo, C de Champs, A Lefebvre, D Jolly, L Kanagaratnam. JAMDA, , February 2019 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1525861019302294 

Copper Alloy Touch Surfaces in Healthcare Facilities: An Effective Solution to Prevent Bacterial Spreading. Marius Colin, Flora Klingelschmitt, Emilie Charpentier, Jérôme Josse, Lukshe Kanagaratnam, Christophe De Champs, Sophie C. Gangloff. MDPI, December 2018

https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/11/12/2479

Antimicrobial efficacy and compatibility of solid copper alloys with chemical disinfectants. Katrin Steinhauer, Sonja Meyer, Jens Pfannebecker, Karin Teckemeyer, Klaus Ockenfeld, Klaus Weber, Barbara Becker. PLOS ONE, August 2018

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200748

Contact killing and antimicrobial properties of copper. M Vincent, R E Duval, P Hartemann, M Engels‐Deutsch. Journal of Applied Microbiology, December 2017

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jam.13681

Reduction of Bacterial Burden by Copper Alloys on High-touch Athletic Center Surfaces. Z Ibrahim, A Petrusan, P Hooke, S Hinsa-Leasure. American Journal of Infection Control, August 2017

https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(17)31008-8/fulltext

Reduction of Environmental Contamination With Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria by Copper-Alloy Coating of Surfaces in a Highly Endemic Setting. Maria Souli, Anastasia Antoniadou, Ioannis Katsarolis, Irini Mavrou. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, May 2017

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology/article/reduction-of-environmental-contamination-with-multidrugresistant-bacteria-by-copperalloy-coating-of-surfaces-in-a-highly-endemic-setting/E40B680532F64DC16DFD55CD73EE85F5

The Role of Copper Surfaces in Reducing the Incidence of Healthcare-associated infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ignacio Pineda, Richard Hubbard, Francisca Rodríguez. Canadian Journal of Infection Control, Spring 2017

https://ipac-canada.org/photos/custom/CJIC/IPAC_Spring2017_Pineda.pdf

Potential of Copper Alloys to Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital Infection Rates. Harold T. Michels and Corinne A. Michels, Internal Medicine Review, March 2017

https://internalmedicinereview.org/index.php/imr/article/download/363/pdf

Antimicrobial Copper Alloys Decreased Bacteria on Stethoscope Surfaces. Michael G. Schmidt et al. American Journal of Infection Control,  June 2017

https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(17)30094-9/abstract

Copper as an Antibacterial Material in Different Facilities. J. Inkinen, R. Mäkinen, M.M. Keinänen-Toivola, K. Nordström, M. Ahonen. Letters in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 64, Issue 1, January 2017

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/lam.12680

Copper Alloy Surfaces Sustain Terminal Cleaning Levels in a Rural Hospital. Shannon M. Hinsa-Leasure, Queenster Nartey, Justin Vaverka, Michael G. Schmidt. American Journal of Infection Control, 28 September 2016

https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(16)30751-9/fulltext

Perspectives From the Field in Response to “It is Time to Revise our Approach to Registering Antimicrobial Agents for Health Care Settings”. Michael G. Schmidt, Joseph J. John Jr., Katherine D. Freeman, Peter A. Sharpe, Adam A. Estelle, Harold T. Michels. American Journal of Infection Control, 9 August 2016

https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(16)30551-X/abstract

Copper Alloys - The New ‘Old’ Weapon in the Fight Against Infectious Disease. Harold T. Michels and Corinne A. Michels, Current Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 10 2016

http://www.researchtrends.net/tia/abstract.asp?in=0&vn=10&tid=41&aid=5817&pub=2016&type=3

Antimicrobial Applications of Copper. Marin Vincent, Philippe Hartemann, Marc Engels-Deutsch. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 219, 17, A, 575-626,  October 2016

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1438463916300669

Potential Effectiveness of Copper Surfaces in Reducing Health Care–associated Infection Rates in a Pediatric Intensive and Intermediate Care Unit: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial. Bettina von Dessauer Maria S. Navarrete, Dona Benadof, Carmen Benavente, Michael G. Schmidt. American Journal of Infection Control. August 2016

https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(16)30338-8/fulltext

Copper Surfaces are Associated with Significantly Lower Concentrations of Bacteria on Selected Surfaces within a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Michael G. Schmidt PhD; Bettina von Dessauer MD; Carmen Benavente MD; Dona Benadof MD; Paulina Cifuentes RN; Alicia Elgueta RN; Claudia Duran MS; Maria S. Navarrete MD MPH. American Journal of Infection Control, Corrected proof. February 2016 

https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(15)00981-5/fulltext

From Laboratory Research to a Clinical Trial: Copper Alloy Surfaces Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital-Acquired Infections. Michels, H.T., Health Env Research & Design Journal. July 2015

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1937586715592650

Implementation of Antimicrobial Copper in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. P Efstathiou, M Anagnostakou, E Kouskouni, C Petropoulou, K Karageorgou, Z Manolidou, S Papanikolaou, M Tseroni, E Logothetis, V Karyoti. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 2(Suppl1):O68, June 2013

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2047-2994-2-S1-O68

Financial Benefits after the Implementation of Antimicrobial Copper in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). P Efstathiou, E Kouskouni, S Papanikolaou, K Karageorgou, Z Manolidou, M Tseroni, E Logothetis, C Petropoulou, V Karyoti. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 2(Suppl 1):P369, June 2013

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2047-2994-2-S1-P369

Antimicrobial Copper (Cu+) Implementation and its Influence to the Epidemiological Data in Elementary School Population. P Efstathiou, E Kouskouni, K Karageorgou, M Tseroni, Z Manolidou, S Papanikolaou, E Logothetis, H Tzouma, C Petropoulou, I Agrafa. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2013, 2(Suppl 1):P370 

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2047-2994-2-S1-P370

 

Copper Surfaces Reduce the Rate of Healthcare-Acquired Infections in the Intensive Care Unit. Cassandra D Salgado, MD; Kent A Sepkowitz, MD; Joseph F John, MD; J Robert Cantey, MD; Hubert H Attaway, MS; Katherine D Freeman, DrPH; Peter A Sharpe, MBA; Harold T Michels, PhD; Michael G Schmidt, PhD. ICHE, Vol. Vol. 34, No. 5, 2013., Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology , Vol. 34, No. 5, Special Topic Issue: The Role of the Environment in Infection Prevention (May 2013), pp. 479-486.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/10.1086/670207.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3Ade08e01451448eb135fa1fa728bb59f8

Copper Continuously Limits the Concentration of Bacteria Resident on Bed Rails within the Intensive Care Unit. Michael G Schmidt, PhD; Hubert H Attaway III, MS; Sarah E Fairey, BS; Lisa L Steed, PhD; Harold T Michels, PhD; Cassandra D Salgado, MD, MS Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, Vol. 34, No. 5. May 2013.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/670224?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Experimental Tests of Copper Components in Ventilation Systems for Microbial Control. Charles Feigley, Jamil Khan, Deborah Salzberg, James Hussey, Hubert Attaway, Lisa Steed, Michael Schmidt and Harold Michels,  HVAC&R Research, 19:1, 53-62, January 2013

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10789669.2012.735150?journalCode=uhvc20

Antimicrobial Effect of Copper on Multidrug-resistant Bacteria. G. Steindl, S. Heuberger and B. Springer. Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift – Veterinary Medicine Austria 99, 38-43, December 2011 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281481662_Antimicrobial_effect_of_copper_on_multidrug-resistant_bacteria

Application of copper to prevent and control infection. Where are we now? O’Gorman J, Humphreys H, Journal of Hospital Infection August 2012

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2012.05.009 or

https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(12)00165-X/abstract

Sustained Reduction of Microbial Burden on Common Hospital Surfaces through Introduction of Copper. Michael G Schmidt, Hubert H Attaway, Peter A Sharpe, Joseph John Jr, Kent A Sepkowitz, Andrew Morgan, Sarah E Fairey, Susan Singh, Lisa L Steed, J Robert Cantey, Katherine D Freeman, Harold T Michels, Cassandra D Salgado J Clin Microbiol vol 50, July 2012

https://jcm.asm.org/content/50/7/2217?sid=69a977c8-f292-41e8-ab6d-374d24330521

Characterization and Control of the Microbial Community Affiliated with Copper or Aluminum Heat Exchangers of HVAC Systems. Michael G Schmidt, Hubert H Attaway, Silva Terzieva, Anna Marshall, Lisa L Steed, Deborah Salzberg, Hameed A Hamoodi, Jamil A Khan, Charles E Feigley, Harold T Michels. Curr Microbiol, May 9 2012 May 9

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3378845/

Antimicrobial activity of different copper alloy surfaces against copper resistant and sensitive Salmonella enterica. Libin Zhu, Jutta Elguindi, Christopher Rensing, Sadhana Ravishankar, Article in Food Microbiology 30 (2012) 303-310. Elsevier Ltd., May 2012

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740002011002735?via%3Dihub

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Copper Alloy Furnishing in the Clinical Environment; a Cross-over Study. Karpanen T J, Casey A L, Lambert P A, Cookson B D, Nightingale P, Miruszenko L and Elliott T S J. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. Jan 2012

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22173515

The Role of Antimicrobial Copper Surfaces in Reducing Healthcare-associated Infections, Panos A Efstathiou, European Infectious Disease, 5(2):125-8, July 2011

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233387430_Healthcare-associated_Infections_The_Role_of_Antimicrobial_Copper_Surfaces_in_Reducing_Healthcare-associated_Infections

Science, Technology and Design: Harnessing Copper’s Antimicrobial Power – A Review. Mark Tur, Proceedings of 2011 European Design 4 Health Conference, Sheffield, UK. 13-15th, 329-341, July, 2011,

https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/359004/1/D4H2011_proceedings_v5a.pdf#page=329 

Metallic Copper as an Antimicrobial Surface. Gregor Grass, Christopher Rensing and Marc Solioz, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. March 2011, pp 1541-1547. Vol 77, No 5, March 2011

doi: 10.1128/AEM.02766-10 or

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3067274/

A Pilot Study to Determine the Effectiveness of Copper in Reducing the Microbial Burden (MB) of Objects in Rooms of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Patients. C D Salgado, A Morgan, K A Sepkowitz et al. Poster 183, 5th Decennial International Conference on Healthcare-Associated Infections, Atlanta, March 29, 2010

https://shea.confex.com/shea/2010/webprogram/Paper1590.html

Effectiveness of copper contact surfaces in reducing the microbial burden (MB) in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Hospital del Cobre, Calama, Chile. V Prado, C Durán, M Crestto, A Gutierrez, P Sapiain, G Flores, H Fabres, C Tardito, M Schmidt. Poster 56.044, presented at the 14th International Conference on Infectious Diseases, Miami, March 11, 2010.

https://www.academia.edu/32936953/Effectiveness_of_copper_contact_surfaces_in_reducing_the_microbial_burden_MB_in_the_intensive_care_unit_ICU_of_hospital_del_Cobre_Calama_Chile

Survival of Bacteria on Metallic Copper Surfaces in a Hospital Trial. André Mikolay, Susanne Huggett, Ladji Tikana, Gregor Grass, Jörg Braun and Dietrich H Nies. Applied Microbial and Cell Physiology, May 2010

DOI 10.1007/s00253-010-2640-1.

https://www.academia.edu/28411955/Survival_of_bacteria_on_metallic_copper_surfaces_in_a_hospital_trial?auto=download 

Performance of Ultramicrofibre Cleaning Technology with or without Addition of a Novel Copper-Based Biocide. D Hamilton, A Foster, L Ballantyne, P Kingsmore, D Bedwell, T J Hall, S S Hickok, A Jeanes, P G Coen, V A Gant, Journal of Hospital Infection 74, 62-71, January 2010 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819583

Role of Copper in Reducing Hospital Environment Contamination. A L Casey, D Adams, T J Karpanen, P A Lambert, B D Cookson, P Nightingale, L Miruszenko, R Shillam, P Christian and T S J Elliott, J Hosp Infect, January  2010

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19931938

Antimicrobial efficacy of copper touch surfaces in reducing environmental bioburden in a South African community healthcare facility. Marais F et al, J Hosp Infect (2009) 

https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(09)00297-7/fulltext

Antimicrobial Characteristics of Copper. H T Michels, ASTM Standardization News, October 2006.

https://www.astm.org/SNEWS/OCTOBER_2006/michels_oct06.html

  • Guidelines

epic3: National Evidence-Based Guidelines for Preventing Healthcare-Associated Infections in NHS Hospitals in England. H P Loveday, J A Wilson, R J Pratt, M Golsorkhi, A Tingle, A Baka, J Browne, J Prieto, M Wilcox. Journal of Hospital Infection 86S1, S1–S70, 2014

https://www.elsevier.com/about/press-releases/research-and-journals/epic3-national-evidence-based-guidelines-for-preventing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-nhs-hospitals-in-england

  • Economics

The Role of Copper Surfaces in Reducing the Incidence of Healthcare-associated infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis .Ignacio Pineda, Richard Hubbard, Francisca Rodríguez. Canadian Journal of Infection Control, Spring 2017

https://ipac-canada.org/photos/custom/CJIC/IPAC_Spring2017_Pineda.pdf

Potential of Copper Alloys to Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital Infection Rates. Harold T. Michels and Corinne A. Michels, Internal Medicine Review, March 2017

https://internalmedicinereview.org/index.php/imr/article/view/363/pdf

Financial Benefits after the Implementation of Antimicrobial Copper in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). P Efstathiou, E Kouskouni, S Papanikolaou, K Karageorgiou, Z Manolidou, M Tseroni, E Logothetis, C Petropoulou, V Karyoti. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 2(Suppl 1):P369, June 2013

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2047-2994-2-S1-P369

The Economic Assessment of an Environmental Intervention: Discrete Deployment of Copper for Infection Control in ICUs. M Taylor, S Chaplin, York Health Economics Consortium, York, UK, Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2013, 2(Suppl1):P368

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2047-2994-2-S1-P368

The Role of Antimicrobial Copper Surfaces in Reducing Healthcare-associated Infections. Panos A Efstathiou, European Infectious Disease, 2011;5(2):125-8, July 2011

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233387430_Healthcare-associated_Infections_The_Role_of_Antimicrobial_Copper_Surfaces_in_Reducing_Healthcare-associated_Infections

{Note: If you click on a PDF and it does not open, please change to another search engine.}

The Antimicrobial Copper Action Network - Location is in the United States, and serving the Globe:

Contact us at:  cu.microbes@gmail.com

*EPA required statement:  Laboratory testing shows that, when cleaned regularly, antimicrobial copper surfaces kill greater than 99.9% of the following bacteria within 2 hours of exposure: MRSA, VRE, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli O157:H7. Antimicrobial copper surfaces are a supplement to and not a substitute for standard infection control practices and have been shown to reduce microbial contamination, but do not necessarily prevent cross contamination or infections; users must continue to follow all current infection control practices.

 

All EPA related statements on this website apply to the U.S. market and audiences only.​ 

For locations outside of the U.S., local regulatory guidelines should be consulted and followed.