References - Part 2 of 2, including links to abstracts 

and related information and selected published  papers

The References are presented on two pages of the drop-down menu, Part 1 and Part 2, and are grouped into the following topics.

Part 1:  References listed on this page fall into the following areas.

  • Clinical Trials and Field Trials

  • Guidelines 

  • Economics

Part 2:  References listed on this page fall into the following areas.

  • Laboratory Research

  • Mechanism - of Killing Bacteria

  • Reviews 

Some of the references appear in more than one group because of their content. 

To view the published paper or abstract of interest: 

  • Click on the links shown underlined in red to view the selected abstract or a paper. 

 

Note: in many cases, you will get only get  the abstract, and other related information,  but not the full text of the paper.  In some cases, a fee may be required to obtain the full paper.  You can also try putting the entire paper title in your search engine.

 

If the link is highlighted in green, the full paper should be provided, at no cost.  When the document opens, you may have to look for internal links saying Free Access, Open Access, Full Text, or a DOI designation.

Some of the papers may have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier).  In most cases, you will have to cut and paste the doi link, shown in blue, into a search engine to view the abstract and other related information.  In a few cases, all that is needed is to click on the link.

 

Please note: If any link does not open readily, try entering the paper title into a search engine.

Disclaimers

The following scientific studies include conclusions about copper alloys that do not reflect U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) antimicrobial public health product registration approvals. These conclusions are the opinions of the researchers and authors and are based on independent scientific studies that have not been reviewed or approved by EPA.

Furthermore, any references that state or imply effectiveness in controlling disease, preventing infection, or the transmission of bacteria (i.e. cross-contamination) that can cause disease in humans have not been approved by either EPA or FDA (U.S. Food & Drug Administration). It is imperative that all marketing and promotion of antimicrobial copper surfaces in the U.S. adhere to EPA guidelines. For locations outside of the U.S., local regulatory guidelines should be consulted and followed.

 

References, with links

  • Laboratory Research

Antimicrobial effect of copper surfaces on bacteria isolated from poultry meat. A Parra, M Toro, R Jacob, P Navarrete, M Troncoso, G Figueroa, A Reyes-Jara. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, November 2018 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1517838217312546#!

Impact of oxidation of copper and its alloys in laboratory-simulated conditions on their antimicrobial efficiency. M Walkowicza, P Osucha, B Smyraka, T Knycha, E Rudnika, L Cieniekb, A Różańskac, A Chmielarczykc, D Romaniszync, M Bulandac. Corrosion Science, August 2018 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010938X17313963

Antimicrobial efficacy and compatibility of solid copper alloys with chemical disinfectants. Katrin Steinhauer, Sonja Meyer, Jens Pfannebecker, Karin Teckemeyer, Klaus Ockenfeld, Klaus Weber, Barbara Becker. PLOS ONE, August 2018 

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200748

Antimicrobial Effect of Copper Alloys on Acinetobacter Species Isolated from Infections and Hospital Environment. Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Grzegorz Majka, Małgorzata Bulanda. BioMed Central, January 2018 

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13756-018-0300-x?site=aricjournal.biomedcentral.com 

Contact killing and antimicrobial properties of copper. M Vincent, R E Duval, P Hartemann, M Engels‐Deutsch. Journal of Applied Microbiology, December 2017 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jam.13681

Pure and Oxidized Copper Materials as Potential Antimicrobial Surfaces for Spaceflight Activities. Hahn C., Hans M., Hein C., Mancinelli R.L., Mücklich F., Wirth R., Rettberg P., Hellweg C.E., and Moeller R.. Astrobiology,  17(12): 1183-1191, December 2017,

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/ast.2016.1620 

Life-like Assessment of Antimicrobial Surfaces by a New Touch Transfer Assay Displays Strong Superiority of a Copper Alloy Compared to Silver Containing Surfaces. Knobloch JK-M, Tofern S, Kunz W, SchuÈtze S, Riecke M, Solbach W, et al. PLOS ONE 12(11): e0187442.  November 2017

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187442 

Antibiotic Resistance, Ability to Form Biofilm and Susceptibility to Copper Alloys of Selected Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Touch Surfaces in Polish Hospital Wards. A Różańska, A Chmielarczyk, D Romaniszyn, M Bulanda, M Walkowicz, P Osuch and T Knych. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, August 2017 

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13756-017-0240-x 

Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic Contamination. A Różańska,A Chmielarczyk, D Romaniszyn, A Sroka-Oleksiak, M Bulanda, M Walkowicz, P Osuch, T Knych. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, July 2017 

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/14/7/813 

Killing of Bacteria by Copper, Cadmium, and Silver Surfaces Reveals Relevant Physicochemical Parameters. J Luo, C Hein, F Mücklich, M Solioz. Biointerphases 12,020301, June 2017 

https://boris.unibe.ch/109643/1/1.4980127.pdf

Potential of Copper Alloys to Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital Infection Rates. Harold T. Michels and Corinne A. Michels, Internal Medicine Review, March 2017 

https://internalmedicinereview.org/index.php/imr/article/download/363/pdf

Influence of Copper and its Alloys Against Resistant Strains of Coagulase-negative Staphylococci Isolated from Touch Surfaces of Polish Hospital Units. A. Różańska, A. Chmielarczyk, D. Romaniszyn, M. Bulanda. Journal of Hospital Infection, Supplement 1, November 2016.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556671/

Small Colony Variants are More Susceptible to Copper-mediated Contact Killing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Sha Liu and Xue-Xian Zhang, Journal of Medical Microbiology, 65, 1143–1151, October 2016 

https://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000348 

Copper Alloys - The New ‘Old’ Weapon in the Fight Against Infectious Disease. Harold T. Michels, Corinne A. Michels, Current Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 10, 2016 

http://www.researchtrends.net/tia/abstract.asp?in=0&vn=10&tid=41&aid=5817&pub=2016&type=3 

Antimicrobial Applications of Copper. Marin Vincent, Philippe Hartemann, Marc Engels-Deutsch. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 219, 17, A, 575-626,  October 2016 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1438463916300669

Lack of Involvement of Fenton Chemistry in Death of Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Sensitive Strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Destruction of Their Genomes on Wet or Dry Copper Alloy Surfaces. S. L. Warnes and C. W. Keevil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82, 7, 2132 April 2016 

https://aem.asm.org/content/82/7/2132.abstract 

Physicochemical Properties of Copper Important for its Antibacterial Activity and Development of a Unified Model. Michael Hans, Salima Mathews, Frank Mücklich and Marc Solioz, Biointerphases 11, 018902 , November 2015 

https://avs.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1116/1.4935853 

Human Coronavirus 229E Remains Infectious on Common Touch Surface Materials. Warnes SL, Little ZR, Keevil CW. 2015. Human coronavirus 229E remains infectious on common touch surface materials. mBio 6(6):e01697-15. November 2015

https://mbio.asm.org/content/6/6/e01697-15.full

From Laboratory Research to a Clinical Trial: Copper Alloy Surfaces Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital-Acquired Infections. Michels, H.T. 2015. Health Environments Research & Design Journal. 1–16. July 2015

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1937586715592650 

Antimicrobial Activity of Copper Alloys Against Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Nosocomial Pathogens. Koseoglu Eser O, Ergin A, Hascelik G, Current Microbiology, 5 June 2015 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00284-015-0840-8 

Destruction of the Capsid and Genome of GII.4 Human Norovirus Occurs During Exposure to Metal Alloys Containing Copper. S. Manuel, M. D. Moore and L.A. Jaykus, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 15 May 2015 

https://aem.asm.org/content/81/15/4940.abstract 

Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria. Meyer, T.J. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering. Vol:9, No:3. , 2015

http://waset.org/publications/10000728/antimicrobial-properties-of-copper-in-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-bacteria 

Inactivation of Murine Norovirus on a Range of Copper Alloy Surfaces is Accompanied by Loss of Capsid Integrity. S. L. Warnes, E. N. Summersgill and C.W. Keevil, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1 December 2014 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25452290

Inactivation of Bacterial and Viral Biothreat Agents on Metallic Copper Surfaces. Pauline Bleichert, Christophe Espirito Santo, Matthias Hanczaruk, Hermann Meyer, Gregor Grass, BioMetals, International Biometals Society, 7 August 2014 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10534-014-9781-0

Surface Structure Influences Contact Killing of Bacteria by Copper. Marco Zeiger, Marc Solioz, Hervais Edongu, Eduard Arzt & Andreas S. Schneider. MicrobiologyOpen; 3(3): 327–332, 2014 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/mbo3.170

Inactivation of Norovirus on Dry Copper Alloy Surfaces. Warnes SL, Keevil CW. PLOS ONE 9 (5):e98333, September 2013

 https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0075017#amendment-correction 

Norovirus Inactivation on Antimicrobial Touch Surfaces. B Keevil, S Warnes, Centre for Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, UK. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control , 2(Suppl 1):P25, June 2013 

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2047-2994-2-S1-P25 

Contact Killing of Bacteria on Copper is Suppressed if Bacterial-Metal Contact is Prevented and Induced on Iron by Copper Ions. Salima Mathews, Michael Hans, Frank Mücklich, Marc Solioz, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol 79, No 8. April 2013. Copyright © American Society for Microbiology. 

https://aem.asm.org/content/79/8/2605.abstract?sid=0440523b-d956-47a0-a2db-b30fefb29fc0 

Antimicrobial activity of copper surfaces against carbapenemase-producing contemporary Gram-negative clinical isolates. Souli M, Galani I, Plachouras D, Panagea T, Armaganidis A, Petrikkos G, Giamarellou H. J Antimicrob Chemother. 68(4):8, April 2013

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23228934 

Horizontal Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes on Abiotic Touch Surfaces: Implications for Public Health. Sarah L. Warnes, Callum J Highmore, and C William Keevil, Centre for Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton, UK. mBio vol. 3 no. 6 e00489-12, 27 November 2012

https://mbio.asm.org/content/3/6/e00489-12/article-info

Characterization and Control of the Microbial Community Affiliated with Copper or Aluminum Heat Exchangers of HVAC Systems. Michael G Schmidt, Hubert H Attaway, Silva Terzieva, Anna Marshall, Lisa L Steed, Deborah Salzberg, Hameed A Hamoodi, Jamil A Khan, Charles E Feigley, Harold T Michels. Curr Microbiol, 9 May 2012. 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00284-012-0137-0

Antimicrobial metallic copper surfaces kill Staphylococcus haemolyticus via membrane damage. Christophe Espírito Santo, Davide Quaranta, Gregor Grass. MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 46–52, March 2012, 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/mbo3.2 

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Copper Surfaces in an Outpatient Infectious Disease Practice. Seema Rai, Bruce E Hirsch, Hubert H Attaway, Richard Nadan, S Fairey, J Hardy, G Miller, Donna Armellino, Wilton R Moran, Peter Sharpe, Adam Estelle, J H Michel, Harold T Michels and Michael G Schmidt . Feb 2012

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology/article/evaluation-of-the-antimicrobial-properties-of-copper-surfaces-in-an-outpatient-infectious-disease-practice/C021715331F4A38FB0260452ED7A9F0D

Mechanism of Copper Surface Toxicity in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Involves Immediate Membrane Depolarization Followed by Slower Rate of DNA Destruction which Differs from that Observed for Gram-positive Bacteria. S L Warnes, V Caves and C W Keevil, Environmental Healthcare Unit, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.Journal Article: Environmental Microbiology (impact factor:5.5). 12/2011

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51886538_Mechanism_of_copper_surface_toxicity_in_Escherichia_coli_O157H7_and_Salmonella_involves_immediate_membrane_depolarization_followed_by_slower_rate_of_DNA_destruction_which_differs_from_that_observed_fo 

Mechanism of Copper Surface Toxicity in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci following Wet or Dry Surface Contact. S L Warnes and C W Keevil, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, September 2011. 

https://aem.asm.org/content/77/17/6049

The Role of Antimicrobial Copper Surfaces in Reducing Healthcare-associated Infections. Panos A Efstathiou, European Infectious Disease, 2011;5(2):125-8 

http://www.medical-development.gr/articles/efstathiou.pdf 

Science, Technology and Design: Harnessing Copper’s Antimicrobial Power – A Review. Mark Tur, Proceedings of 2011 European Design 4 Health Conference, Sheffield, UK. 13-15th July 2011 

https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/359004/1/D4H2011_proceedings_v5a.pdf#page=329  

Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces. C Espírito Santo, E W Lam, C G Elowsky, D Quaranta, D W Domaille, C J Chang, and G Grass, 2011. Bacterial killing by dry metallic copper surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Vol. 77, No. 3, p. 94-802, February 2011 

https://aem.asm.org/content/77/3/794.abstract 

Mechanisms of Contact-Mediated Killing of Yeast Cells on Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces. Davide Quaranta, Travis Krans, Christophe Espírito Santo, Christian G Elowsky, Dylan W Domaille, Christopher J Chang, Gregor Grass, Applied & Environmental Microbiology. Vol. 77, No. 2, p.416–426, January 2011

https://aem.asm.org/content/77/2/416.short

Biocidal Efficacy of Copper Alloys against Pathogenic Enterococci Involves Degradation of Genomic and Plasmid DNA. S L Warnes, S M Green, H T Michels, C W Keevil, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., Vol. 76, No. 16, p5490-5401, August 2011 

https://aem.asm.org/content/76/16/5390.abstract 

Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Efficacy of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Challenged Antimicrobial Materials Containing Silver and Copper. H T Michels, J O Noyce, and C W Keevil, Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49 (2009) 191-195 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779462/

 

Potential for Preventing Spread of Fungi in Air-Conditioning Systems Constructed Using Copper Instead of Aluminium. L Weaver, H T Michels, C W Keevil, Letters in Applied Microbiology ISSN 0266-8254 (2010) 50 (1): 18.

doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02753.x. or

PMID 19943884. or

http://www.copperairquality.org/research/documents/fungi.pdf 

Antimicrobial surfaces and their potential in reducing the role of the inanimate environment in the incidence of hospital-acquired infections. Kristopher Page, Michael Wilson and Ivan P Parkin, University College London. January 2009. J. Mater. Chem. 2009

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2009/jm/b818698g#!divAbstract

The antimicrobial properties of copper surfaces against a range of important nosocomial pathogens. S W J Gould, M D Fielder, A F Kelly, M Morgan, J Kenny, D P Naughton,Annals of Microbiology, 59 (1) 151-156 (2009) 

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-antimicrobial-properties-of-copper-surfaces-a-Gould-Fielder/e0ca43fdcc214fa5db1841000216ad6659cae5da

Antimicrobial Properties of Copper Alloy Surfaces, with a Focus on Hospital-Acquired Infections. H Michels, W Moran and J Michel, International Journal of Metalcasting, Summer 2008, pp 47-56 

http://www.tistrip.be/websites/uploadfolder/75/cms/images/effet_ab_sur_bact_hospi.pdf 

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Copper Surfaces Against Spores and Vegetative Cells of Clostridium difficile: The Germination Theory. L. J. Wheeldon, T. Worthington, P. A. Lambert, A. C. Hilton, C. J. Lowden and T. S. J. Elliott, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2008 62(3):522-525;

https;//academic.oup.com/jac/article/62/3/522/732872

Survival of Clostridium difficile on copper and steel: futuristic options for hospital hygiene. L Weaver, H T Michels, and C W Keevil, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol 68, Issue 2, pp 145-151, February 2008 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18207284?dopt=Citation 

The antimicrobial activity of copper and copper alloys against nosocomial pathogens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from healthcare facilities in the Western Cape: an in-vitro study . S Mehtar, I Wiid, and S D Todorov, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol. 68, Issue 1, pp 45-51, January 2008 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18069086?dopt=Abstract 

Inactivation of Influenza A Virus on Copper versus Stainless Steel Surfaces. J O Noyce, H Michels and C W Keevil, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, pp 2748 - 2750, Vol 73, No 8, April 2007 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1855605/

Survival of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A on metal surfaces: implications for cross-contamination. S A Wilks, H T Michels and C W Keevil, International Journal of Food Microbiology, 111, September (2006), pp 93-98. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16876278?dopt=AbstractPlus 

Antimicrobial Characteristics of Copper. H T Michels, ASTM Standardization News, October 2006. 

https://www.astm.org/SNEWS/OCTOBER_2006/michels_oct06.html 

Potential use of copper surfaces to reduce survival of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare environment. J O Noyce, H Michels and C W Keevil, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol 63, Issue 3, pp 289-297, July 2006 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16650507?dopt=AbstractPlus 

Use of Copper Cast Alloys to Control Escherichia coli O157 Cross Contamination during Food Processing. J O Noyce, H Michels, and C W Keevil, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, pp 4239-4244, June 2006. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1489622/?tool=pubmed

The survival of Escherichia coli O157 on a range of metal surfaces. S A Wilks, H Michels and C W Keevil, International Journal of Food Microbiology, 105 (2005), pp 445-454. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16253366?dopt=AbstractPlus

Copper Alloys for Human Infectious Disease Control. H T Michels, J P Noyce, S A Wilks and C W Keevil. Copper for the 21st Century, Materials Science & Technology 2005 (MS&T’05) Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, September 25-28, 2005, ASM, ACerS, AIST, AWS, TMS, ISSN: 1546-2498 

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.559.9650

Inactivation of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria in traditional brass and earthenware water storage vessels. P Tandon, S Chibber and R Reed, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (2005) 88:35-4, 14pp 

​​https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10482-004-7366-6

  • Reviews

Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review: a different view. Schmidt MG, Salgado CD, Freeman KD, John Jr. JF, Cantey RJ, Sharpe PA, Michels HT. Journal of Hospital Infection, February 2018 

https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(18)30099-9/pdf 

Contact killing and antimicrobial properties of copper. M Vincent, R E Duval, P Hartemann, M Engels‐Deutsch. Journal of Applied Microbiology, December 2017 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jam.13681 

The Role of Copper Surfaces in Reducing the Incidence of Healthcare-associated infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ignacio Pineda, Richard Hubbard, Francisca Rodríguez. Canadian Journal of Infection Control, Spring 2017 

https://ipac-canada.org/photos/custom/CJIC/IPAC_Spring2017_Pineda.pdf 

Potential of Copper Alloys to Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital Infection Rates. Michels and Michels, Internal Medicine Review, March 2017 

http://internalmedicinereview.org/index.php/imr/article/download/363/pdf 

Copper Alloys - The New ‘Old’ Weapon in the Fight Against Infectious Disease. Harold T. Michels, Corinne A. Michels, Current Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 10 2016 

http://www.researchtrends.net/tia/abstract.asp?in=0&vn=10&tid=41&aid=5817&pub=2016&type=3 

Antimicrobial Applications of Copper. Marin Vincent, Philippe Hartemann, Marc Engels-Deutsch. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.

doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.06.003 or

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1438463916300669 

Physicochemical Properties of Copper Important for its Antibacterial Activity and Development of a Unified Model. Michael Hans, Salima Mathews, Frank Mücklich and Marc Solioz, Biointerphases 11, 018902 (2016) 

https://avs.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1116/1.4935853 

Destruction of the Capsid and Genome of GII.4 Human Norovirus Occurs During Exposure to Metal Alloys Containing Copper. C. S. Manuel, M. D. Moore and L.A. Jaykus, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 15 May 2015 

https://aem.asm.org/content/81/15/4940.abstract 

Understanding the Role of Facility Design in the Acquisition and Prevention of Healthcare-associated Infections. Health Environments and Research Design Journal, Vol 7, Supplement, 2013 

http://digimags.vendomegrp.com/html/HERD-Supplement/HERD_Special.pdf 

Evaluation of New In Vitro Efficacy Test for Antimicrobial Surface Activity Reflecting UK Hospital Conditions. M Ojeil, C Jermann, J Holah, S P Denyer, J-Y Maillard. Sept 2013

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257349178_Evaluation_of_new_in_vitro_efficacy_test_for_antimicrobial_surface_activity_reflecting_UK_hospital_conditions

Application of copper to prevent and control infection. Where are we now? O’Gorman J, Humphreys H, Journal of Hospital Infection (2012),

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2012.05.009or

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.476.4024&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Control and Mitigation of Healthcare-Acquired Infections. Peter A Sharpe, MBA, EDAC, and Michael G Schmidt, MA, PhD. Control and mitigation of healthcare-acquired infections: Designing clinical trials to evaluate new materials and technologies. Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 5(1), 94-115. 2011. 

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/06cc/48d26c1a3bca289d3c5b87e1953724f08e08.pdf

Science, Technology and Design: Harnessing Copper’s Antimicrobial Power – A Review. Mark Tur, Proceedings of 2011 European Design 4 Health Conference, Sheffield, UK. 13-15th, 329-341, July 2011 

https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/359004/1/D4H2011_proceedings_v5a.pdf#page=329 

Antimicrobial surfaces and their potential in reducing the role of the inanimate environment in the incidence of hospital-acquired infections. Kristopher Page, Michael Wilson and Ivan P Parkin, University College London. January 2009. J. Mater. Chem. 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b818698g 

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2009/jm/b818698g#!divAbstract

Antimicrobial Characteristics of Copper. H T Michels, ASTM Standardization News, October 2006. 

https://www.astm.org/SNEWS/OCTOBER_2006/michels_oct06.html 

  • Mechanism of Killing Bacteria

Antimicrobial effect of copper surfaces on bacteria isolated from poultry meat. A Parra, M Toro, R Jacob, P Navarrete, M Troncoso, G Figueroa, A Reyes-Jara. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, August 2018 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1517838217312546#

Impact of oxidation of copper and its alloys in laboratory-simulated conditions on their antimicrobial efficiency. M Walkowicza, P Osucha, B Smyraka, T Knycha, E Rudnika, L Cieniekb, A Różańskac, A Chmielarczykc, D Romaniszync, M Bulandac. Corrosion Science, August 2018 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010938X17313963 

Antimicrobial efficacy and compatibility of solid copper alloys with chemical disinfectants. Katrin Steinhauer, Sonja Meyer, Jens Pfannebecker, Karin Teckemeyer, Klaus Ockenfeld, Klaus Weber, Barbara Becker. PLOS ONE, August 2018 

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200748 

Antimicrobial Effect of Copper Alloys on Acinetobacter Species Isolated from Infections and Hospital Environment . Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Grzegorz Majka, Małgorzata Bulanda. BioMed Central, January 2018 

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13756-018-0300-x?site=aricjournal.biomedcentral.com 

Contact killing and antimicrobial properties of copper. M Vincent, R E Duval, P Hartemann, M Engels‐Deutsch. Journal of Applied Microbiology, December 2017 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jam.13681 

Killing of Bacteria by Copper, Cadmium, and Silver Surfaces Reveals Relevant Physicochemical Parameters. J Luo, C Hein, F Mücklich, M Solioz. Biointerphases 12,020301, 2017. 

https://avs.scitation.org/doi/10.1116/1.4980127 

Small Colony Variants are More Susceptible to Copper-mediated Contact Killing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Sha Liu and Xue-Xian Zhang, Journal of Medical Microbiology (2016), 65, 1143–1151 

https://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000348 

Copper Alloys - The New ‘Old’ Weapon in the Fight Against Infectious Disease. Harold T. Michels, Corinne A. Michels, Current Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 10 2016 

http://www.researchtrends.net/tia/abstract.asp?in=0&vn=10&tid=41&aid=5817&pub=2016&type=3 

Lack of Involvement of Fenton Chemistry in Death of Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Sensitive Strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Destruction of Their Genomes on Wet or Dry Copper Alloy Surfaces. S. L. Warnes and C. W. Keevil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2016, 10.1128/AEM.03861-15 

https://aem.asm.org/content/82/7/2132.abstract  

Physicochemical Properties of Copper Important for its Antibacterial Activity and Development of a Unified Model. Michael Hans, Salima Mathews, Frank Mücklich and Marc Solioz, Biointerphases 11, 018902 (2016) 

https://avs.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1116/1.4935853 

Human Coronavirus 229E Remains Infectious on Common Touch Surface Materials. Warnes SL, Little ZR, Keevil CW. 2015. Human coronavirus 229E remains infectious on common touch surface materials. mBio 6(6):e01697-15.

doi:10.1128/mBio.01697-15. 

https://mbio.asm.org/content/6/6/e01697-15.full

Destruction of the Capsid and Genome of GII.4 Human Norovirus Occurs During Exposure to Metal Alloys Containing Copper. C. S. Manuel, M. D. Moore and L.A. Jaykus, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 15 May 2015 

https://aem.asm.org/content/81/15/4940.full

Inactivation of Murine Norovirus on a Range of Copper Alloy Surfaces is Accompanied by Loss of Capsid Integrity. S. L. Warnes, E. N. Summersgill and C.W. Keevil, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1 December 2014 

https://aem.asm.org/content/81/3/1085

Surface Structure Influences Contact Killing of Bacteria by Copper. Marco Zeiger, Marc Solioz, Hervais Edongu, Eduard Arzt & Andreas S. Schneider. MicrobiologyOpen 2014; 3(3): 327–332. 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/mbo3.170

Inactivation of Norovirus on Dry Copper Alloy Surfaces. Warnes SL, Keevil CW (2013) 

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0075017#amendment-correction

Contact Killing of Bacteria on Copper is Suppressed if Bacterial-Metal Contact is Prevented and Induced on Iron by Copper Ions. Salima Mathews, Michael Hans, Frank Mücklich, Marc Solioz, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, April 2013, Vol 79, No 8. Copyright © American Society for Microbiology. doi:10.1128/AEM.03608-12. 

https://aem.asm.org/content/79/8/2605.abstract?sid=0440523b-d956-47a0-a2db-b30fefb29fc0 

Mechanism of Copper Surface Toxicity in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Involves Immediate Membrane Depolarization Followed by Slower Rate of DNA Destruction which Differs from that Observed for Gram-positive Bacteria. S L Warnes, V Caves and C W Keevil, Environmental Healthcare Unit, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.Journal Article: Environmental Microbiology (impact factor: 5.5). 12/2011 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51886538_Mechanism_of_copper_surface_toxicity_in_Escherichia_coli_O157H7_and_Salmonella_involves_immediate_membrane_depolarization_followed_by_slower_rate_of_DNA_destruction_which_differs_from_that_observed_fo 

Mechanism of Copper Surface Toxicity in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci following Wet or Dry Surface Contact. S L Warnes and C W Keevil, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, September 2011. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165410/

Biocidal Efficacy of Copper Alloys against Pathogenic Enterococci Involves Degradation of Genomic and Plasmid DNA. S L Warnes, S M Green, H T Michels, C W Keevil, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. doi:10.1128/AEM.03050-09, 2010 and 

https://aem.asm.org/content/76/16/5390.abstract 

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Copper Surfaces Against Spores and Vegetative Cells of Clostridium difficile: The Germination Theory. L. J. Wheeldon, T. Worthington, P. A. Lambert, A. C. Hilton, C. J. Lowden and T. S. J. Elliott, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2008 62(3):522-525; doi:10.1093/jac/dkn219. 

https://academic.oup.com/jac/article/62/3/522/732872 

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The Antimicrobial Copper Action Network - Location is in the United States, and serving the Globe:

Contact us at:  cu.microbes@gmail.com

*EPA required statement:  Laboratory testing shows that, when cleaned regularly, antimicrobial copper surfaces kill greater than 99.9% of the following bacteria within 2 hours of exposure: MRSA, VRE, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli O157:H7. Antimicrobial copper surfaces are a supplement to and not a substitute for standard infection control practices and have been shown to reduce microbial contamination, but do not necessarily prevent cross contamination or infections; users must continue to follow all current infection control practices.

 

All EPA related statements on this website apply to the U.S. market and audiences only.​ 

For locations outside of the U.S., local regulatory guidelines should be consulted and followed.